5G cellular communications and satellites:
Cellular communication on satellite terminals has always been exotic, and such a standard as 5G is absolutely fantastic. Operators installed such structures only in very remote places, where other options (including fiber-optic cable) are too expensive. This solution is also common in the Arctic regions and individual research stations.
However, with the development of cellular protocols 5G and higher, it becomes relevant for operators and providers to build a ubiquitous ground-satellite infrastructure to optimize network loads. The question is the criticality of such a parameter as ping in the network: when it is not critical, the signal can be sent via satellite.
The point is that ping is critical: for technologies such as the road parameters of the car’s location, network voltage, and so on, millisecond delays are very important.
Do you know how far a car travels at a speed of even 70 km / h (approximately 48 mph) in 1 second? It turns out that 19.4 m! And at even 30 km / h (20.7 mph) – this will be 8.3 m. The human body in cross-section-an average of 0.45 m. That is, if the time difference in receiving a command for 1 millisecond is 19.4 cm at a speed of 70 km/h and 8 cm at 30 km/h.
Also-speed is important for switching the load in the main power supply network. In the presence of power compensation for power surges-every millisecond during switching can mean huge costs for the repair of substations and the possibility of disconnecting large areas.
Economics and strategy:
Therefore, operators began to consider options for communication via 5G satellite terminals with satellites. The initiative belonged to the EMEA-Satellite Operators Association (ESOA), and subsequently joined the European Space Agency (ESA).
The owners of satellite communications companies have also expressed interest in the emerging market, given the drop in profits in their sector. In particular, the use of such technologies in IoT devices is definitely interesting. Especially when reducing the size and cost of home two-way satellite communication terminals.
In addition, lobbyists at all levels over the past couple of years have still been able to add components to the 5G specifications for satellite communication protocols. Thus, the prospect of integration into ground structures is quite real.
However, even the first devices of the Wi Fi 6 standard significantly reduce ping. And the value goes up to 10 ms of maximum connection speed up to 9.6 GB/s.
The possibilities of connecting in direct mode, where 5G communication was used, have already been demonstrated. For example, when communicating with a satellite in the Ku-band. It is also planned to connect from a subscriber who moves at the speed of a car.
MediaTek, together with the satellite operator Inmarsat, were able to implement the connection according to the NB-IoT standard. It is important that this protocol is part of the LTE and 5G implementation. The connection to the satellite itself was made in the L-band.
The global direction for the development of low-orbit satellite infrastructure is the basis for the creation of broadband access systems. The last arguments about the high cost of the project are exhausted. Especially when compared to the expansion of ground structures and associated costs.
It is not yet clear who will lead the race of satellite informatization, but what is interesting and important: it is inevitable. First of all, peripheral computing further accelerates the optimization of communication channels. Finally, dynamic routing adequately balances peak loads.